Systems design is the process of defining the architecture , modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements . Systems design could be seen in the application of systems theory to product development . There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis , systems architecture and systems engineering .  
If the topic of product development is “blends the perspective of marketing, design, and manufacturing into a single approach to product development,”  then design is the act of taking information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured . Systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing systems to satisfy the requirements of the user.
Until the 1990s, systems design has been crucial and respected in the data processing industry. In the 1990s, the standardization of hardware and software came out of the ability to build modular systems. The increasing importance of software running on generic platforms has enhanced the discipline of software engineering .
Object-oriented analysis and design methods are the most widely used methods for computer systems design. [ citation needed ] The UML has become the standard language in object-oriented analysis and design. [ citation needed ] It is widely used for modeling software and is used for high designing non-software systems and organizations. [ quote needed ]
The architectural design of a system emphasizes the design of the system architecture that describes the structure , the behavior and the views of that system.
The logical design of a system pertains to an abstract representation of the data flows, inputs and outputs of the system. This is being done via modeling, using an over-abstract (and sometimes graphical) model of the actual system. In the context of systems, designs are included. Logical design includes entity-relationship diagrams (ER diagrams).
The physical design is related to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is explained in a system, how it is verified / authenticated, how it is processed, and how it is displayed. In physical design, the following requirements for the system are decided.
- Input requirement,
- Output requirements,
- Storage requirements,
- Processing requirements,
- System control and backup or recovery.
Put another way, the physical portion of system design is broken down into three sub-tasks:
- User Interface Design
- Data Design
- Process Design
User Interface Design is concerned with how to add information to the system. Data Design is concerned with how data is represented and stored within the system. Finally, Process Design is concerned with how data moves through the system, and with which it is validated, secured and / or transformed into, through and out of the system. At the end of the design phase, documentation describing the three sub-tasks is produced and made available for use in the next phase.
Physical design, in this context, does not refer to the tangible physical design of an information system. To use an analogy, a personal computer’s physical design involves input via a keyboard, processing within the CPU, and output via a monitor, printer, etc. It would be a hardware, which would be a monitor, CPU, motherboard, hard drive, modems, video / graphics cards, USB slots, etc. It involves a detailed design of a user and a product database structure processor and a control processor. The H / S personal specification is developed for the proposed system.
- Benchmarking – is an effort to evaluate
- Computer programming and debugging in the world, or detailed design in the consumer, enterprise or commercial world – specify the final system components.
- Design – designers will Produce one or more ‘ models ‘ of What They see a system like looking Eventually, with ideas from the analysis section Either used or discarded. A document is a document of the system, but nothing is specific – they might say ‘touchscreen’ or ‘GUI operating system’, but not mention any specific brands;
- Requirements analysis – customer needs analysis
- System architecture – creates a blueprint for design with the necessary structure and behavior specifications for hardware, software, people and data resources. In many cases, multiple architectures are evaluated before one is selected.
- System testing – evaluates the system’s functionality, including all integration aspects.
Alternative design methodologies
Rapid application development (RAD)
Rapid application development (RAD) is a methodology in which a system designer produces prototypes for an end-user. The end-user reviews the prototype, and offers feedback on its suitability. This process is repeated until the end-user is satisfied with the final system.
Joint application design (JAD)
Joint application design (JAD) is a methodology which is derived from RAD, in which a system designer consults with a group of the following parties:
- Executive sponsor
- System Designer
- Managers of the system
JAD involves a number of courses, in which the group collectively develops an agreed pattern for the design and implementation of the system.
- Architectural pattern (computer science)
- Design configuration
- Electronic design automation (EDA)
- Electronic system-level (ESL)
- Embedded system
- Graphical system design
- Modular design
- Morphological analysis (problem-solving)
- SCSD (School Construction Systems Development) project
- System information modeling
- System Life Cycle Development (SDLC)
- System engineering
- System thinking
- Jump up^ This article incorporates public domain materialfrom theGeneral Services Administrationdocument”Federal Standard 1037C”.
- Jump up^ This article incorporates public domain materialfrom theUnited States Department of Defensedocument “Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms”.
- Jump up^ Ulrich & Eppinger (2000). Product Design & Development . Irwin McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-229647-X .