Mobile computing is human-computer interaction by qui a computer is expected to be transported During normal use, qui Allows for transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols , data formats and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.
Principles of Mobile Computing
- Portability: Facilitates movement of device (s) within the mobile computing environment.
- Connectivity: Ability to effectively stay connected to the low level of lag / downtime
- Social Interactivity: Maintaining the connectivity to collaborate with other users, at least within the same environment.
- Individuality: Adapting the technology to suit individual needs.
- Portability: Devices / nodes connected within the mobile computing system should facilitate mobility. These devices may have limited capacity capabilities and limited power supply, but they should have sufficient processing capability and physical portability to operate in a movable environment.
- Connectivity: This defines the quality of service (QoS) of the network connectivity. In a mobile computing system, the network is expected to be maintained at a high level with the minimum amount of lag / downtime without being affected by the mobility of the connected nodes.
- Interactivity: The nodes belonging to a mobile computing system are connected to one another to communicate and interact with active transactions of data.
- Individuality: A portable device or a mobile node connected to a mobile network. A mobile computing system should be able to adopt the technology to cater for the individual needs and to obtain the contextual information of each node.
Some of the most common forms of mobile computing are:
- Portable computers, compact, lightweight units comprenant un full character set and keyboard Primarily Intended as hosts for software That May be parameterized, Such As laptops / desktops , smartphones / tablets , etc.
- Smart cards that can run multiple applications and payment.
- Cellular telephones , telephony devices which can call from a distance through cellular networking technology.
- Wearable computers , mostly limited to functional keys, and primarily intended for the incorporation of software agents , such as bracelets, keyless implants, etc.
The existence of these classes is expected to be long lasting, and complementary in personal use.
Other types of mobile computers have been introduced
- Portable computer (discontinued)
- Personal digital assistant / Enterprise digital assistant (discontinued)
- Ultra-Mobile PC (discontinued)
- Smartphones and tablets
- Wearable computer
- Range and bandwidth: GPRS and EDGE , and more recently HSDPA , HSUPA , 3G and 4G networks and the proposed 5G network. These networks are usually available within the range of commercial cell phone towers. High speed network wireless LANs are inexpensive but have very limited range.
- Security standards: When working mobile, one is dependent on public networks, requires careful use of VPN . Security is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards on the fleet. One can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks interconnected through the line.
- Power consumption: When a portable power generator is not available, mobile computers must rely entirely on battery power. These batteries are often used in the manufacture of batteries.
- Interferences transmission: Weather, ground, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings and rural areas is often poor.
- Potential health hazards: People who use mobile devices while driving and driving.  (While this May sccm Obvious, there is considerable debate about whether banning mobile device use while driving Reduces Accident or not.   ) May Cell phones interfere with sensitive medical devices. Questions regarding mobile phone radiation and health have been raised.
- Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which makes them hard to use. Alternate input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training.
In-vehicle computing and fleet computing
Many commercial and government field forces deploy a rugged portable computer with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the devices for the driver, safety device, and ergonomics . Health and safety are important factors in the management of health and safety, and the safety of health professionals.
Other elements affecting function in vehicle:
- Operating temperature : A temperature range of -30-60 ° C (-22-140 ° F). Computers typically must be able to withstand it while operating. Typical fan-based cooling has stated limits of 35-38 ° C (95-100 ° F) of ambient temperature, and temperatures below freezing requirements of SRI Group and by SRI Group Panasonic R & D).
- Vibration can decrease the life expectancy of computer components, notably as HDDs .
- Visibility of standard screens becomes an issue in bright sunlight.
- Touchscreen users easily interact with the units in the field without removing gloves.
- High-temperature battery settings: Lithium ion batteries are sensitive to high temperature conditions for charging. A computer designed for the mobile environment should be designed with a high-temperature charging function that limits the load to 85% or less of capacity.
- External antenna connections, which would be much better than external communication and navigation equipment.
Security issues involved in mobile
Mobile security has become increasingly important in mobile computing. It is of particular concern as it relates to the security of personal information now stored on the smartphone .
More and more users and businesses use smartphones as a way of planning and organizing their work and private life. These technologies are important in the organization of information systems and they have become the source of new risks. Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information to which access is controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company.
All smartphones are preferred targets of attacks. These attacks exploit Weaknesses related to smartphones That can come from moyen de wireless telecommunication like Wi-Fi networks and GSM . There are also attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities from both the web browser and the operating system. Finally, there are forms of malicious software that rely on the weak knowledge of average users.
Different security counter-measures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end users. There are good practices to be observed at all levels, from design to use, through the development of operating systems , software layers, and downloadable apps.
Portable computing devices
Several categories of portable computing devices can be found on laptops: portable computers, PDAs , ultra mobile PCs (UMPCs), tablets and smartphones.
- A portable computer (discontinued) is a general-purpose computer that can be easily moved from place to place, but can be used while in transit, usually because it requires some “setting-up” and an AC power source. The most famous example is Osborne 1 . Portable computers are also called a “transportable” or a “luggable” PC.
- A personal digital assistant (PDA) (discontinued) is a small, usually pocket-sized, computer with limited functionality. It is intended to supplement and synchronize with a desktop computer, giving access to contacts, address book, notes, e-mail and other features.
At Palm TX PDA
- An ultra mobile PC (discontinued) is a full-featured, PDA-sized computer running a general-purpose operating system.
- Tablets / phones : a slate tablet is shaped like a paper notebook. Smartphones are the same devices, but they are much smaller and pocketable. Instead of a physical keyboard, these devices have a touchscreen including a combination of a virtual keyboard , but can also link to a physical keyboard via wireless Bluetooth or USB. These devices include features other computer systems would not be able to incorporate, such as built-in cameras, because of their portability.
- A carputer is installed in an automobile. It operates as a wireless computer, sound system, GPS, and DVD player. It also contains word processing software and is Bluetooth compatible. 
- Pentop (discontinued) is a computing device of the size and shape of a pen. It functions as a writing utensil, MP3 player, translator language, digital storage device, and calculator. 
- An application-specific computer is one that is tailored to a particular application. For example, Ferranti introduced a handheld application-specific mobile computer (the MRT-100 ) in the form of a clipboard for conducting polls opinion . 
Blurred at times. For example, the OQO UMPC is also a PDA-sized tablet PC; the Apple eMate had the clamshell form factor of a laptop, but ran PDA software. The HP Omnibook line of laptops included some small mobile phones. The hardware of the Nokia 770 internet tablet is essentially the same as that of a PDA such as the Zaurus 6000; the only reason it’s not called PDA is that it does not have PIM software. On the other hand, both the 770 and the Zaurus can run some desktop Linux software, usually with modifications.
Mobile data communication
Wireless data connections used in mobile computing  Cellular data services uses GSM technologies , CDMA or GPRS , 3G networks such as W-CDMA , EDGE or CDMA2000 .   and more recently 4G networks such as LTE , LTE-Advanced .  These networks are usually available within the range of commercial towers . Wi-Fi connections offer higher performance, may be a private business network or accessed through public hotspots , and have a typical range of 100 feet indoors and up to 1000 feet outdoors.  Satellite Internet Access covers areas Where cellular and Wi-Fi are not available  and May be set up anywhere the user: has a line of sight to the satellite’s location,  qui for satellites in geostationary orbit means clustering Having an unobstructed view of the southern sky.  Some enterprise deployments is a combination of cellular, satellite and Wi-Fi networks.  When using a mix of networks, amobile virtual private network ( mobile VPN ) not only handles the security concerns, but also performs the multiple network logins automatically and keeps the application connections alive to prevent crashes or data loss during network transitions or coverage loss.  
- Lists of mobile computers
- Enterprise digital assistant
- Location-based service
- Mobile cloud computing
- Mobile Computing and Communications Review
- Mobile development
- Mobile device management
- Mobile identity management
- Mobile interaction
- Mobile software
- Mobileers (users of mobile rigs )
- Smart device
- Ubiquitous computing
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