Data (word)

The word  data  has generated considerable controversy on whether it is an uncountable noun used with conjugated verbs in the singular, or should be treated as the only rarely-used  datum  .

Usage in English

In one sense,  data  is the plural form of  datum  .  Datum  Actually aussi can be a count noun with the plural  datums  (see use in datum article) That can be used with cardinal numbers (eg “80 datums”);  data  (originally a Latin plural) is not used like a normal count noun with cardinal numbers and can be plural with plural determiners Such as  thesis  and  Many  gold as an uncountable noun with a verb in the singular form.  [1] Even When a very small quantity of data is referenced (one number, for example), the sentence  piece of data  is used Often, as Opposed to  datum  . The debate on appropriate usage continues,  [2]  [3]  [4]  goal “data” as a singular form is far more common.  [5]

In English , the word  datum  is still used in the general sense of ‘an item given “. In cartography , geography , nuclear magnetic resonance and technical drawing , it is often used to refer to a single specific reference . Any measurement or result is a  datum  , though  data points  is now far more common.  [6]

Data  is most often used as a singular mass noun in everyday use.  [7]  [8]  Some major newspapers, such as  The New York Times ,  use it in the singular or plural. In the  New York Times  the phrases “the survey data is still being analyzed” and “the first year for which data is available”.  [9]  The  Wall Street Journal  allows this usage in its style guide.  [10]  The Associated Press style guide classified  data As a collective, the article is divided into two parts (eg, “The data is sound” and “The data has been carefully collected”).  [11]

In scientific writing  data  is Often Treated as a plural, as in  These data do not supporting the conclusions  , order the word est used as a singular mass entity like  information  , for instance in computing and related disciplines.  [12] British usage now Widely Accepts Treating  data  as singular in standard English,  [13]  Including everyday newspaper usage  [14]  at least in non-scientific use.  [15]  UK scientific publishing still prefers treating it as a plural.  [16]  Some UK university style guides recommend using  data  for both singular and plural use  [17] , and others recommend treating it as a singular in connection with computers.  [18]  The IEEE Computer Society allows the use of  data to be  based on author preference,  [19]  while IEEE in the editorial style manual indicates to always use the plural form.  [20]  Some organisms and professional style guides  [21]  require That authors treat  data  as a plural noun. For example, the Air Force Flight Test Center SPECIFICALLY states que la word  data  is always plural, never singular.  [22]

References

  1. Jump up^   “data, datum”.  Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage  . Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2002. pp. 317-318. ISBN  978-0-87779-132-4 .
  2. Jump up^  “Data is a singular noun” .
  3. Jump up^  “Grammarist: Data” .
  4. Jump up^  “Dictionary.com Data” .
  5. Jump up^  “Elitist, Superfluous, Gold Popular? We Polled Americans on the Oxford Comma” .  FiveThirtyEight  .
  6. Jump up^   Matt Dye (2001). “Writing Reports” . University of Bristol .
  7. Jump up^  New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1999
  8. Jump up^  “… in educated everyday use as represented by the Guardian newspaper, it is nowadays most often used as a singular.” http://www.lexically.net/TimJohns/Kibbitzer/revis006.htm
  9. Jump up^  “When Serving the Lord, Ministers Are Often Found to Neglect Themselves” . New York Times. 2009.  “Investment Tax Cuts Help Mostly the Rich”  .  New York Times.  2009.
  10. Jump up^  “Is Data Is, or Is Data Is Not, a Plural?” . Wall Street Journal. 2012.
  11. Jump up^  The Associated Press (June 2002). “collective nouns”. In Norm Goldstein.  The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law  . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus. p. 52. ISBN  0-7382-0740-3 .
  12. Jump up^   RW Burchfield, ed. (1996). “data”.  Fowler’s Modern English Usage  (3rd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 197-198. ISBN  0-19-869126-2 .
  13. Jump up^  New Oxford Dictionary of English  . 1999.
  14. Jump up^   Tim Johns (1997). “Data: singular or plural?” . Archived from the original on 2009-02-11.  … in educated everyday use by the Guardiannewspaper, it is nowadays most often used as a singular.
  15. Jump up^  “Data” .  Compact Oxford Dictionary  .
  16. Jump up^  “Data: singular or plural?” . Blair Wisconsin International University . Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
  17. Jump up^  “Singular or plural” .  University of Nottingham Style Book  . University of Nottingham . Archived from the original on July 26, 2010.
  18. Jump up^  “An introduction to data and information” .  OpenLearn  . Archived fromthe original on March 4, 2016.
  19. Jump up^  “IEEE Computer Society Style Guide, DEF” (PDF) . IEEE Computer Society.
  20. Jump up^  “IEEE EDITORIAL STYLE MANUAL, DEF” (PDF) . IEEE Periodicals.
  21. Jump up^  “WHO Style Guide” (PDF) . Geneva: World Health Organization . 2004. p. 43. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2010.
  22. Jump up^  The Author’s Guide to Writing Flight Force Flight Test Center Technical Reports  . Air Force Flight Test Center .

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