Retrocomputing

Retrocomputing is the use of older computer hardware and software in modern times. Retrocomputing is usually classed as a hobby and recreation rather than a practical application of technology; enthusiasts often collect rare and valuable hardware and software for sentimental reasons. However, some do make use of it. [1] Retrocomputing often starts when a computer user realizes expensive IBM systems like mainframes , Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) superminis , or Silicon Graphics (SGI), even NeXT ComputerSystem workstationshave become affordable on the computer market, usually in a relatively short time after the computers’ era of use. Read More…

Human computer

The term ” computer “, [1] meant “one who computes”: a person performing mathematical calculations , before electronic computing became commercially available. “The human computer is supposed to be governed by the rules” [2] Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that it could be done in parallel.

Since the end of the 20th century, the term “human computer” has also been applied to individuals with prodigious powers of mental arithmetic , also known as mental calculators . Read More…

Ferranti MRT

The Ferranti Market Research Terminal (MRT) was, arguably, the world’s first application-specific handheld computer. [1] [2] It was designed SPECIFICALLY for the market research sector as a means clustering to augment the regular clipboard schemes That, at the time, Were common-place in social and market research . [3] The Ferranti Market Research Terminal (MRT) est of historical significance to the computing industry since it marked the last original design from computer Ferranti , long Established business (started 1882) That HAD risen to fame through a collaborative Manchester Universityto produce the ” Mark 1 “, the world’s first commercial computer and later with Cambridge University producing the ” Atlas ” and ” Titan ” computers which, at their peak, held around 25% of the computing market. Read More…

Delete character

In computing, the delete character (sometimes also called rubout ) is the last character in the ASCII directory, with the code 127 ( decimal ). [1] Not a graphic character but a control character , it is denoted as ^?in caret notationand has a graphic representation of Unicode (as all ASCII control characters graphic representations).

Most modern keyboards do not have a key to input the Delete character. In Unix-like systems the key or combination of and can be used to express the Delete character. Products like Notepad can also generate this character with the same key presses.← BackspaceControl← Backspace Read More…

Computer: A History of the Information Machine

Computer: A History of the Information Machine is a history of computing written by Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray first published in 1996. It follows the history of “information machine” from Charles Babbage ‘s difference engine through Herman Hollerith ‘s tabulating machine to the invention of the modern electronic digital computer. A revised 2nd edition published in 2004 included new material on the Internet and World Wide Web, Nathan Ensmenger and Jeffrey Yost. The 3rd edition extends the story to include recent phenomena such as social networking and revisiting the discussion of early history to reflect new insights from the literature. Read More…

Computer Press Association

Founded in 1983, the Computer Press Association (CPA) was established to promote excellence in the field of computer journalism. The association was composed of working editors, writers, producers, and freelancers who covered issues related to computers and technology. The CPA was the annual Computer Press Awards, which was the preeminent editorial awards of the computer and technology media. The CPA Awards honored outstanding examples in print, broadcast and electronic media. Awards were given for print publications, such as PC Magazine ; online news media, such as Newsbytes Network News (both were multiple winners); individual columns and features by well-known journalists Such As Steven Levy (author of “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution “); broadcast awards such as “Best Radio Program”; Best Product Specific Book. CPA President Jeff Yablon (1994-1996), most notably Bruno Blenheim . The Computer Press Association disbanded in 2000. Read More…

Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology , particularly the history of digital computing, programming / software, and computer networking since 1935. The Institute is named for Charles Babbage , the nineteenth-century English inventor of the programmable computer. [1] The Institute is located in Elmer L. Andersen Library at the University of Minnesota Libraries in Minneapolis , Minnesota . Read More…

C.mmp

The C.mmp was an early multiprocessor MIMD developed at Carnegie Mellon University by William Wulf (1971). The notation C.mmp came from the PMS notation of Bell and Newell, where a CPU was designated as C and a variant was noted by the dot notation; mmp stood for Multi-Mini-Processor Read More…

History of computer hardware in Bulgaria

This article describes the history of computer hardware in Bulgaria . At its peak, Bulgaria supplied 40% of the computers in COMECON [1] . The electronics industry employed 300,000 workers, and it generated 8 billion rubles a year. Since the democratic changes in 1989 and the subsequent chaotic political and economic conditions, the Bulgarian computer industry has almost completely disintegrated. Read More…

Boston CitiNet

Started in 1983, Boston CitiNet was developed by Applied Videotex Systems, Inc. of Belmont, Massachusetts . The service allowed modem-equipped personal computer users to dial-in and access a range of information and messaging services including chat, forums, email and a variety of content. There Were Several other companies Offering paid / subscription services have the time like The Source , CompuServe and Boston-based Delphi . Boston Citinet has been unique and has been supported by advertising. $ 9.95 – an early example of the popular freemium business model. Read More…

As We May Think

” As We May Think ” is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society . It was first published in The Atlantic in July 1945 and republished in an abridged version in September 1945-before and after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki . Bush express His concern for the management of scientific efforts Toward destruction Rather than understanding, and explicates a desire for a sort of collective memory Machine With His concept of the memexthat would make knowledge more accessible, believing that it would help fix these problems. Through this machine, Bush hoped to transform an information explosion into a knowledge explosion. [1] Read More…

Aperture card

An aperture card is a type of punched card with a cut-out window in which a chip of microfilm is mounted. Such a card is used for archiving or for making multiple inexpensive copies of a document for ease of distribution. The card is typically punched with machine-readable metadata associated with the image microfilm, and printed in the card for visual identification. The microfilm chip is most commonly 35mm in height, and contains an optically reduced image, usually of some type of reference, such as an engineering drawing, that is the focus of the archiving process. Aperture cards have several advantages and disadvantages when compared to digital systems. Machinery exists to automatically store, retrieve, spell, duplicate, create, and digitize cards with a high level of automation. While many aperture cards still play an important role in archiving, their role is being replaced by digital systems. Read More…

Actor model middle history

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973 ( Hewitt et al., 1973 ), is a mathematical model of concurrent computation . This article reports on the history of the Actor model in which major themes were initial implementations, initial applications, and development of the first proof theory and denotational model. It is the follow on to item Actor model early history qui carry on the early history of the Actor model qui Concerned the development of the basic concepts. The article Actor model later in this article. Read More…

Actor model later history

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973 ( Hewitt et al., 1973 ), is a mathematical model of concurrent computation . This article reports on the latest history of the Actor model in which major themes have been investigated in the study of the model, study of issues of composition, development of architectures, and application to Open systems. It is the follow on article to Actor model middle history which reports on the initial implementations, initial applications, and development of the first proof theory and denotational model. Read More…

History of the Actor model

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973, is a mathematical model of concurrent computation .

Event orderings versus global state

A fundamental challenge in defining the Actor model is that it did not provide for global states so that it was computational step in the global state of the world. Read More…

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