Von Neumann architecture

The von Neumann architecture , which is also known as the Neumann model and Princeton architecture , is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC . [1] This describes a design architecture for an electronic computer with parts of a processing unitcontaining an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers ; a control unit containing an instruction register andprogram counter ; a memory to store both data and instructions ; external mass storage ; and input and output mechanisms. [1] [2] The meaning HAS to be Evolved Any stored-program computer in qui year fetch statement and a data operation can not Occur at the time Sami Because They share a common bus . This is referred to as the Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. [3] Read More…

Xeon Phi

Xeon Phi [1] are a series of x86 manycore processors designed and made entirely by Intel . They are intended for use in supercomputers, servers, and high-end workstations. Its architecture makes use of standard programming languages ​​and APIs such as OpenMP . [2]

Since it was originally based on an earlier GPU design by Intel, it shares application areas with GPUs. citation needed ] The main difference between Xeon Phi and a GPGPU like Nvidia Tesla is that Xeon Phi, with an x86-compatible core, can, with less modification, than software that was originally targeted at a standard x86 CPU. quote needed ] Read More…

Zero address arithmetic

Zero address arithmetic is a feature of a few innovative computer architectures , where the assignment to a physical address is deferred. It Eliminates the link step of conventional compile and link architectures, and more Generally relocation .

All Burroughs large systems and medium systems had this property, as their modern day successors preserve the original physical architecture. Read More…

Xputer

The Xputer is a design for a reconfigurable computer , proposed by scientist Reiner Hartenstein. Hartenstein uses various terms to describe the various innovations in the design, including config-ware, flow-ware, morph-ware, and “anti-machine”. Read More…

Transport triggered architecture

In computer architecture , a transport triggered architecture ( TTA ) is a kind of CPU design in qui programs Directly control the internal transportation nozzles of a processor. Computation happens as a side effect of data transport: writing data into a triggering port of a functional unit triggers the functional unit to start a computation. This is similar to what happens in a systolic array . Due to its modular structure, TTA is an ideal processor template for the application-specific instruction-set processors ( ASIPwith customized datapath but without the inflexibility and design cost of fixed hardware accelerators. Read More…

Temporal multithreading

Temporal multithreading is one of the two main forms of multithreading that can be implemented on computer hardware processor, the other being simultaneous multithreading . The distinguishing différence entre the two forms is the maximum number of concurrent threads That can execute in Any Given pipeline internship in a Given cycle . In temporal multithreading the number is one, while in multithreading multithreading the number is greater than one. Some authors use the term super-threading synonymously. [1] Read More…

Tagged architecture

In computer science , a tagged architecture [1] [2] [3] is a particular type of computer architecture where each word of memory is made of a tagged union , being divided into a number of bits of data, and a tag section that describes the type of the data: how it is to be interpreted, and, if it is a reference, the type of the object that it points to. Read More…

Random-access memory

Random-access memory ( RAM / r æ m / ) is a form of computer data storage That stores data and computer code Currently being white used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memoryThe time required to read and write data on the medium and the speed of motion. Read More…

Superscalar processor

processor is a processor that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor. In contrast to a scalar processor That can execute at MOST one single instruction per clock cycle, a superscalar processor can execute more than one instruction During a clock cycle by Simultaneously multiple dispatching instructions to different execution units on the processor. It therefore Allows for more throughput (the number of instructions That Can Be Executed in a unit of time) than Otherwise Would be feasible at a Given clock rate. Each execution unit is not a separate processor (or a core if the processor is a multi-core processor ), but an execution resource within a single CPU such as an arithmetic logic unit . Read More…

Stream processing

Stream processing is a computer programming paradigm, equivalent to dataflow programming , event stream processing , and reactive programming , [1] which allows some applications to be more easily exploited by a limited form of parallel processing . Such applications can use multiple computational units, Such As the floating point unit was graphics processing unit or field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), [2] without Explicitly managing allocation, synchronization, or communication Among Those units. Read More…

Stanford DASH

Stanford DASH was a coherent multiprocessor cache developed in the late 1980s by Anoop Gupta, John L. Hennessy , Mark Horowitz , and Monica S. Lam at Stanford University . [1] Stanford to up to 16 SGI IRIS 4D Power Series and Stanford-modified version of the Torus Routing Chip. [2] The boards designed at Stanford implemented a directory-based cache coherence protocol [3] allowing Stanford DASH to supportdistributed shared memory for up to 64 processors. Stanford DASH Was notable for aussi Both Supporting and helping to formalize weak memory consistency models , Including release consistency . [4] Because Stanford DASH Was the first operational machine-to include scalable Cache coherence, [5] it Influenced subsequent computer science research as well as the Commercially available SGI Origin 2000 . Stanford DASH is included in the 25th anniversary retrospective of selected papers from the International Symposium on Computer Architecture [6] and several computer science books, [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]has been simulated by the University of Edinburgh, [12] and is used as a case study in contemporary computer science classes. [13] [14] Read More…

Spinnaker

SpiNNaker ( Spiking Neural Network Architecture ) is a multi-core computer architecture designed by the Advanced Processor Technologies Research Group (APT) at the School of Computer Science, University of Manchester , [1] led by Steve Furber , to simulate the human brain (see Human Brain Project ). It is planned to use 1 million ARM processors (currently 0.5 million) [2] in a massively parallel computing platform based on spiking neural networks . [3] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7][8] [9] [10] [11] Read More…

Slot (computer architecture)

slot comprises the operating issue and data paths, a collection of one or more functional units (FUs) which share these resources. The term slot is common for this purpose in the VLIW world where the relationship between operation in an instruction and pipeline to execute is explicit. In dynamically scheduled machines, the concept is more commonly called an execute pipeline . Read More…

Single-core

single-core processor is a microprocessor with a single core on a chip, running a single thread at any one time. The term became common after the emergence of multi-core processors (which have several independent processors on a single chip) to distinguish non-multi-core designs. For example, Intel released a Core 2 Solo and Core 2 Duo , and one would refer to it as the ‘single-core’ variant. Most microprocessors are multi-core and are single-core. The class of many-core processors follows one from multi-core, in a progression showing Increasing parallelism over time. Read More…

Shared memory

In computer science , shared memory is memory That May be Simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to Provide Communication Among Them gold AVOID redundant copies. Shared memory is an efficient means of passing data between programs. Depending on context, programs may run on a single processor or on multiple separate processors. Read More…

scalability

Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged to accommodate that growth. [1] For example, a system is considered scalable if it is capable of increasing its total output under an increased load when resources are added. An analogous meaning is implied when the word is used in an economic context, where the company’s scalability implies that the underlying business model offers the potential for economic growth within the company. Read More…

Register renaming

In computer architecture , register renaming is a technique that eliminates the false data dependencies arising from the reuse of architectural registers by successive instructions that do not have any real data dependencies between them. The elimination of these false data dependencies reveals more instruction-level parallelism in an instruction stream, which can be exploited by various and complementary techniques such as superscalar and out-of-order execution for better performance . Read More…

Register file

register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU). Modern integrated circuit -based register files are usually implemented by way of fast static RAMs with multiple ports. Such ports are distinguished by having dedicated read and write ports, whereas ordinary multiported SRAMs will usually read and write through the same ports. Read More…

Reference model

reference model in systems , enterprise , and software engineering is an abstract framework or domain-specific ontology consisting of an interlinked set of clearly defined concepts produced by an expert or body of experts in order to encourage clear communication. A reference model can represent the component parts of any consistent idea, from business functions to system components, as long as it represents a complete set. This frame of reference can be used to communicate ideas of the same community. Read More…

Processor register

In computer architecture , a processor register is quickly accessible to a computer central processing unit (CPU). Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage , but some registers have specific hardware functions, and may be read-only or write-only. Registers are typically addressed by mechanisms other than hand-held , but may be assigned to memory address eg DEC PDP-10 , ICT 1900 . Read More…

Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements

The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a sufficient requirement for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently. They were introduced by Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg in their 1974 article “Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures”. [1] Even though the requirements are derived under simplified assumptions, they still represent a convenient way of determining whether a computer architecture supports efficient virtualization and provide guidelines for the design of virtualized computer architectures. Read More…

Open architecture

Open architecture is a type of computer architecture or software architecture that is designed to make adding, upgrading and swapping components easy. [1] For example, the IBM PC and Apple have an open architecture supporting plug-in cards, while the Apple IIc and Amiga 500 have a closed architecture . Open systems architecture May use a standardized system bus Such As S-100 , PCI or ISA or They May Incorporate a proprietary standard bus Such As That used on the Apple II, with up to a dozen slots that allow multiple hardware manufacturers to produce add-ons, and for the user to freely install them. By contrast, closed architectures, if they are expandable at all, have one or two “expansion ports”, or they may be installed by technicians with specialized tools or training. Read More…

Northbound interface

In computer networking and computer architecture , a northbound interface of a component is an interface that conceptualizes the lower level details (eg, data or functions ) used by, or in, the component. A northbound interface is used to interface with higher level layers of the southbound interface of the higher level component (s). In architectural overviews, the northbound interface is normally drawn from the northbound interface. Read More…

NonStop (server computers)

NonStop is a series of servers introduced by Tandem Computers Inc., beginning with the NonStop product line , which is followed by the Hewlett-Packard Integrity NonStop product line extension . Because NonStop systems are based on an integrated hardware / software stack, HP also has a special operating system for them: NonStop OS .

NonStop systems are, to an extent, self-healing. To circumvent single points of failure , they are equipped with almost only redundant components. When a mainline component fails, the system automatically falls back to the backup. Read More…

Network Centric Product Support

Network Centric Product Support (NCPS) is an early application of an Internet of Things (IoT) computer architecture developed to leverage new information technologies and global networks to assist in managing maintenance, support and supply chains of complex products systems, such as in a mobile aircraft fleet or fixed assets. This is Accomplished by Establishing digital threads connecting the physical Deployed subsystem design with ict Digital Twinsvirtual model by embedding intelligence through networked micro web servers That aussi function as a computer workstation Within Each subsystem component (ie engine control unitone year aircraft) or other controller and Enabling 2-way communications using Existing Internet technologies and communications networks – Thus Allowing for the extension of a product lifecycle management (PLM) system into a mobile product Deployed at the subsystem level in real time. NCPS can be considered to support the flip side of Network-centric warfare , as this approach goes beyond traditional logistics and aftermarket support functions by taking a complex adaptive systemmanagement approach and integrating field maintenance and logistics in a factory and field environment. CDN Dave Loda (USNR) from Network Centric Warfare-based fleet battle experimentation at the United States Naval Warfare Development Command (NWDC) in the late 1990s, NCPS in aviation at United States Technologies Corporation. Interaction with the MIT Auto-ID Labs , EPCglobal , the Air Transport Association of America ATA Spec 100 / iSpec 2200 and other consortium pioneering the emerging machine to machine Internet of Things (IoT) architecture contributed to the evolution of NCPS. Read More…

Multi-core processor

multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called Expired cores, qui read and execute program instructions . [1] The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch) but the single processor can run multiple instructions on separate cores at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing . [2] Manufacturers Typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated system die (Known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP) or onto multiple dies in a single chip package. Read More…

Microarchitecture simulation

Microarchitecture simulation is an important technique in computer architecture research and computer science education. It is a tool for modeling the design and behavior of a microprocessor and its components, such as the ALU, cache memory , control unit , and data path, among others. The simulation allows researchers to explore the design space and the performance of the microarchitecture features. For example, multiple microarchitecture components, such as branch predictors , re-order buffer , and trace cache, went through numerous simulation cycles before they become common components in contemporary microprocessors of today. In addition, the simulation also enables educators to teach computer organization and architecture courses with hand-on experiments. Read More…

Memory ordering

Memory ordering describes the order of accesses to computer memory by a CPU. The term can Either Refer to the memory ordering generated by the compile During compile time , or to the memory ordering generated by a CPU During runtime .

In modern microprocessors , memory ordering characterizes the CPUs ability to reorder memory operations – it is a type of out-of-order execution . Memory reordering can be used to fully utilize the bus-bandwidth of different types of memory such as caches and memory banks . Read More…

Memory management

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory . The essential requirement of memory management is to provide a dynamic response to requests for reuse when no longer needed. This is critical to-any advanced computer system Where more than a single process might be Underway at Any Time. [1] Read More…

Memory hierarchy

In computer architecture , the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time. Since response time, complexity, and capacity are related, the levels can also be distinguished by their performance and controlling technologies. [1] Memory hierarchy affects performance in computer architectural design, algorithm prediction, and lower level programming involving locality of reference . Read More…

Memory disambiguation

Memory disambiguation is a set of techniques used by high-performance out-of-order executing microprocessors that execute memory access instructions (loads and stores) out of program order. The mechanisms for performing memory disambiguation, implemented using digital logic within the microprocessor core, detect true dependencies between memory operations and the ability to recover. They also eliminate spurious memory dependencies and allow for greater level of readability. Read More…

Memory dependence prediction

Memory dependence prediction is a technique employed by high-performance out-of-order execution microprocessors That execute memory access operations (loads and stores) out of program order, to predict true dependencies entre loads and stores at instruction execution time. With the predicted dependence information, the processor can then decide to speculatively execute certain loads and stores out of order, while preventing other loads and out-of-order (keeping them in-order). Later in the pipeline , memory disambiguation techniques are used to determine if and how to recover. Read More…

MCDRAM

Multi-Channel DRAM or MCDRAM (pronounced em cee dee ram [1] ) is a 3D-stacked DRAM that is used in the Intel Xeon Phi processor codenamed Knights Landing . It is a version of High Bandwidth Memory and a competitor to Hybrid Memory Cube . Read More…

Dataflow architecture

Dataflow architecture is a computer architecture that directly contrasts the traditional Neumann architecture or control flow architecture . Dataflow architectures do not have a program counterpart , or (at least conceptually) the executability and execution of instructions are in fact dependent on the availability of input arguments to the instructions, so that the order of instruction execution is unpredictable: ie behavior is indeterministic. Read More…

Directory-based cache coherence

In computer engineering , directory-based cache coherence is a type of cache coherence mechanism , where directories are used to manage caches in place of snoopy methods due to their scalability. Snoopy bus-based methodsscale poorly due to the use of broadcasting . These methods can be used to target both performance and scalability of systems. [1] Read More…

Directory-based coherence

Directory-based coherence is a mechanism to handle Cache coherence problem in distributed shared memory (DSM) aka Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA). Another popular way is to use a special type of computer busbetween all the nodes as a “shared bus” (aka System bus ). [1] Directory-based coherence uses a special directory to serve the bus-based coherence protocols. Both of These designs use the Corresponding medium (ie bus or directory) as the tool to Facilitate communication entre different nodesand to guarantee that the coherence protocol is working properly along all the communicating nodes. In directory based Cache Coherence, this is done by using this directory to keep tracking of the status for all cached blocks, the status of Each block include in qui Cache coherence ” state ” that block is, and qui nodes are sharing That Block At That time, qui peut être used to Eliminate the need to broadcast all the signals to all nodes, and only send it to the nodes That are interested in this single block. Read More…

DOPIPE

DOPIPE parallelism is a method to perform a loop-level parallelism by pipelining the statements in a loop. Pipelined parallelism may exist at different levels of abstraction like loops, functions and algorithmic stages. The extent of parallelism depends on the programmers’ ability to make the most of this concept. It also depends on factors like identifying and separating the independent tasks and executing them parallelly. [1] Read More…

Fault-tolerant computer system

Fault-tolerant computer systems are designed around the concepts of fault tolerance . In essence, they must be able to work on a level of satisfaction in the presence of faults.

Fault tolerance is not just a property of individual machines; it can also characterize the rules by which they interact. For example, the transmission control protocol (TCP) is designed to allow two-way communication in a packet-switched network , even in the presence of communications that are imperfect or overloaded. It does this by requiring the endpoints of the communication to expect packet loss, duplication, reordering, and corruption, so that these conditions do not damage data integrity, and only reduce throughput by a proportional amount. Read More…

Frequency scaling

In computer architecture , frequency scaling (also known as frequency ramping ) is the technique of increasing a processor’s frequency to enhance the performance of the system containing the processor in question. Frequency ramping was the dominant force in commodity processor performance increases from the mid-1980s until roughly the end of 2004. Read More…

Hardware architect

The hardware systems architect or hardware architect is responsible for:

    • Interfacing with a systems architect or client stakeholders . It is extraordinarily rare nowadays to require substantial hardware and software that require a hardware architect not to require substantial software and a systems architect. The hardware architect will be able to interface with a systems architect, rather than directly with the user (s), sponsor (s), or other client stakeholders. However, in the absence of a systems architect, the hardware systems must be prepared to interface directly with the customers in their hardware. The hardware architect may also need to interface directly with a software architect or engineer (s), or with other mechanical or electrical engineers.

Read More…

Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with PHYSICALLY separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data. The term originated from the Harvard Mark I relay-based computer, which stored instructions on 24-bit wide punch and 24-bit data in electro-mechanical counters. These methods are provided in the central processing unit and provided to the storage as data instruction. Programs needed to be loaded by an operator; the processor could not initialize itself. Read More…

IBM System / 360 architecture

The IBM System / 360 architecture is the independent architectural model for the entire S / 360 line of computers . The elements of the architecture are documented in the IBM System / 360 Principles of Operation [1] [2] and the IBM System / 360 I / O Interface Channel to Control Unit Original Equipment Manufacturers Information manuals. [3] Read More…

Prefetching cache

Prefetching cache is a technique used by computer processors to boost execution performance by fetching instructions or data from their original storage location (hence the term ‘prefetch’). [1] Most modern computer processors-have fast and Local Cache memory in qui prefetched data is Held till it is required. The source for the prefetch operation is usually main memory . Because of their design, accessing cache memories is typically much faster than accessing main memory , so prefetching data and then accessing it from memory. Read More…

Window statement

An instruction window in computer architecture refers to the set of instructions that can be executed out of order in an out-of-order speculative CPU .

In particular, in a conventional design, the instruction window consists of all instructions which are in the re-order buffer (ROB). [1] In such a processor, any statement within the window statement can be executed when its operands are ready. Out-of-order processors derive from their name because they occur out of order (if operands to a younger instruction are ready for those of an older instruction). Read More…

Load / store architecture

In computer engineering , a load / store architecture is an instruction set architecture that divides instructions into two categories: memory access ( load and store between memory and registers ), and ALU operations (which only occur between registers). [1] : 9-12

RISC instruction sets such architectures as PowerPC , SPARC , RISC-V , ARM , and MIPS are load / store architectures. [1] : 9-12 Read More…

Load-store unit

In computer engineering has load-store unit is a Specialized execution unit responsible for executing all load and store instructions, Generating virtual addresses of load and store operations [1] [2] [3] and loading data from memory or Storing it back to memory from registers . [4]

The load-store unit is normally used for the purpose of memory, and the unit is independently of other processor units. [4] Read More…

Check Architecture Machine

In computing , Machine Check Architecture ( MCA ) is an Intel mechanism in which the CPU reports hardware errors to the operating system .

Intel ‘s Pentium 4, Intel Xeon, P6 family processors, architecture, software, error detection, error detection, ECC errors, parity errors, cache errors, and translation lookaside buffer errors. It consists of a set of model-specific registers ( MSRs ) that are used to set up machine checking and additional MSRs. [1] Read More…

Manycore processor

Manycore processors are specialist multi-core processors designed for a high degree of parallel processing , containing a large number of simple, independent processor cores (eg 10s, 100s, or 1,000s). Manycore processors are used extensively in embedded computers and high-performance computing . As of July 2016, the world’s fastest supercomputer (as ranked by the TOP500 list), the Chinese Sunway TaihuLight , obtains its performance from 40,960 SW26010 manycore processors, each containing 260 cores. Read More…

dataflow

Dataflow  is a term used in computing , and may have various shades of meaning.

Software architecture

Dataflow is a software paradigm based on the idea of ​​disconnecting computational actors into stages (pipelines) that can execute concurrently. Dataflow can also be called stream processing or reactive programming .  [1] Read More…

Computer data storage

Computer data storage , often called storage or memory , is a technology of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. [1] : 15-16

The central processing unit (CPU) is a computer manipulated data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , [1] : 468-473 which puts a price on the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies are referred to as “memory”, while slower persistent technologies are referred to as “storage”. Read More…

Computer architecture simulator

computer architecture simulator  , or an architectural simulator , is a piece of software for modeling computer devices (or components) to predict outputs and performance metrics on a given input. An architectural simulator can model a target microprocessor only (see statement set simulator ), or an entire computer system (see full system simulator ), including a processor, a memory system, and I / O devices. Read More…

Computational RAM

Computational RAM  or  C-RAM  is random-access memory with integrated processing elements on the same chip. This enables C-RAM to be used as a SIMD computer. It can also be used as memory bandwidth within a memory chip.

Perhaps the most influential implementations of computational RAM came from The Berkeley IRAM Project . Vector IRAM (V-IRAM) combined DRAM with integrated vector processor on the same chip.  [1] Read More…

Cellular architecture

cellular architecture  is a type of computer architecture prominent in parallel computing . Cellular architectures are Relatively new, with IBM ‘s Cell microprocessor being white the first one to reach the market. Cellular architecture takes multi-core architecture design to its logical conclusion, by giving the programmer the ability to run large numbers of concurrent threads within a single processor. Each ‘cell’ is a compute node containing thread units, memory, and communication. Speed-up is achieved by exploiting thread-level parallelisminherent in many applications. Read More…

Pollution cover

Cache pollution  describes situations where an executing computer program loads data into CPU cache unnecessarily, which causes other useful data to be removed from the cache on lower levels of the memory hierarchy , degrading performance. For example, in a multi-core processor , one core may be replaced by other cores into shared cache, or prefetched blocks may replace demand-fetched blocks from the cache. Read More…

Cache hierarchy

Cache hierarchy  or Multi-level caches refers to a memory model that is more likely to be requested by processors. The purpose of such memory models is to provide a higher performance of memory related instructions, and a higher overall performance of the system.

Was this model for CPU cores to run at faster clocks Needing to hide the memory latency of the main memory access. Today  Multi-level caches  are the best solution to provide such a fast access to data residing in main memory. The CPU’s performance can be relaxed by using a CPU clock .  [1] Read More…

Cache (computing)

In computing , a  cache  / k æ ʃ /  KASH  ,  [1]  is a hardware or software component that stores data so future data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache may be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere. A  cache hit  occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a  cache miss  occurs when it can not. Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache, which is faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store; thus, the more requests can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs. Read More…

Byte addressing

Byte Addressing  Refers to hardware architectures supporting qui Accessing individual bytes of data Rather than only larger units called Expired words , Which would be  word-addressable  . Such computers are sometimes called  byte machines  [1]  (in contrast to  word machines  ).  [2]

The basic unit of digital storage is called a bit , storing a single 0 or 1. Read More…

Bridging model

In computer science , a  bridging model  is an abstract model of a computer qui Provides a conceptual bridge entre les physical implementation of the machines and the abstraction available to a program of That machine; In other words, it is intended to provide a common level of understanding between hardware and software engineers. Read More…

Branch Tail

In Computer Architecture , While Branch predictions Tail branch  [1]  takes place. When Branch Predictor predicts the branch is taken or not.

Branch tail consists 2 values ​​only.  Taken  or  Not Taken  .

Branch queue helps other algorithms to increase parallelism and optimization. It is not software implemented or hardware one, it falls under hardware software co-design. Read More…

Berkeley IRAM project

A 1996–2004 research project in the Computer Science Division of the University of California, Berkeley, the  Berkeley IRAM project  explored computer architecture enabled by the wide bandwidth between memory and processor made possible when both are designed on the same integrated circuit (chip). [1]  Since it was envisioned that such a chip would consist primarily of random-access memory (RAM), with a smaller part needed for the central processing unit (CPU), the research team used the term “Intelligent RAM” (or IRAM) to describe a chip with this architecture. [2] [3]  Like the J–Machine project at MIT, the primary objective of the research was to avoid the Von Neumann bottleneck which occurs when the connection between memory and CPU is a relatively narrow memory bus between separate integrated circuits. Read More…

Autonomous decentralized system

An  autonomous decentralized system  (or  ADS  ) is a decentralized system composed of modules that are designed to operate independently of each other. This design paradigm enables the system to continue to function in the event of component failures. It also allows for maintenance and repair to be carried out while the system remains operational. Autonomous decentralized systems, including industrial production lines , railway signaling  [1]  and robotics.

The ADS has therefore recently been expanded to include service applications and embedded systems.  [2] Read More…

Approximate computing

Approximate computing  is a computation which returns a possibly inaccurate result rather than a guaranteed accurate result, for a situation where an approximate result is sufficient for a purpose. [1] [2]  One example of such situation is for a search engine where no exact answer may exist for a certain search query and hence, many answers may be acceptable. Similarly, occasional dropping of some frames in a video application can go undetected due to perceptual limitations of humans. Approximate computing is based on the observation that in many scenarios, although performing exact computation requires large amount of resources, allowing bounded approximationcan provide disproportionate gains in performance and energy, while still achieving acceptable result accuracy. [ clarification needed ]  For example, in k-means clustering algorithm, allowing only 5% loss in classification accuracy can provide 50 times energy saving compared to the fully accurate classification. [1] Read More…

Address space

In computing , an  address space  defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which corresponds to a network host , a peripheral device , a disk sector , a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

For software programs to save and retrieve stored data, each unit of data must have an address where it can be located or will be unable to find and manipulate the data. The number of address spaces will be limited by the computer architecture being used. Read More…

Abstraction layer

In computing , an  abstraction layer  or  abstraction level  is a way of hiding the implementation of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence . Software models that use layers of the OSI model for network protocols , OpenGL and other graphics libraries . Read More…

Computer architecture

In computer engineering,  computer architecture  is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. [1]  In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation. [2] Read More…

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