dataflow

Dataflow  is a term used in computing , and may have various shades of meaning.

Software architecture

Dataflow is a software paradigm based on the idea of ​​disconnecting computational actors into stages (pipelines) that can execute concurrently. Dataflow can also be called stream processing or reactive programming .  [1] Read More…

Computer data storage

Computer data storage , often called storage or memory , is a technology of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data . It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. [1] : 15-16

The central processing unit (CPU) is a computer manipulated data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy , [1] : 468-473 which puts a price on the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies are referred to as “memory”, while slower persistent technologies are referred to as “storage”. Read More…

Computer architecture simulator

computer architecture simulator  , or an architectural simulator , is a piece of software for modeling computer devices (or components) to predict outputs and performance metrics on a given input. An architectural simulator can model a target microprocessor only (see statement set simulator ), or an entire computer system (see full system simulator ), including a processor, a memory system, and I / O devices. Read More…

Computational RAM

Computational RAM  or  C-RAM  is random-access memory with integrated processing elements on the same chip. This enables C-RAM to be used as a SIMD computer. It can also be used as memory bandwidth within a memory chip.

Perhaps the most influential implementations of computational RAM came from The Berkeley IRAM Project . Vector IRAM (V-IRAM) combined DRAM with integrated vector processor on the same chip.  [1] Read More…

Cellular architecture

cellular architecture  is a type of computer architecture prominent in parallel computing . Cellular architectures are Relatively new, with IBM ‘s Cell microprocessor being white the first one to reach the market. Cellular architecture takes multi-core architecture design to its logical conclusion, by giving the programmer the ability to run large numbers of concurrent threads within a single processor. Each ‘cell’ is a compute node containing thread units, memory, and communication. Speed-up is achieved by exploiting thread-level parallelisminherent in many applications. Read More…

Pollution cover

Cache pollution  describes situations where an executing computer program loads data into CPU cache unnecessarily, which causes other useful data to be removed from the cache on lower levels of the memory hierarchy , degrading performance. For example, in a multi-core processor , one core may be replaced by other cores into shared cache, or prefetched blocks may replace demand-fetched blocks from the cache. Read More…

Cache hierarchy

Cache hierarchy  or Multi-level caches refers to a memory model that is more likely to be requested by processors. The purpose of such memory models is to provide a higher performance of memory related instructions, and a higher overall performance of the system.

Was this model for CPU cores to run at faster clocks Needing to hide the memory latency of the main memory access. Today  Multi-level caches  are the best solution to provide such a fast access to data residing in main memory. The CPU’s performance can be relaxed by using a CPU clock .  [1] Read More…

Cache (computing)

In computing , a  cache  / k æ ʃ /  KASH  ,  [1]  is a hardware or software component that stores data so future data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache may be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere. A  cache hit  occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a  cache miss  occurs when it can not. Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache, which is faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store; thus, the more requests can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs. Read More…

Byte addressing

Byte Addressing  Refers to hardware architectures supporting qui Accessing individual bytes of data Rather than only larger units called Expired words , Which would be  word-addressable  . Such computers are sometimes called  byte machines  [1]  (in contrast to  word machines  ).  [2]

The basic unit of digital storage is called a bit , storing a single 0 or 1. Read More…

Bridging model

In computer science , a  bridging model  is an abstract model of a computer qui Provides a conceptual bridge entre les physical implementation of the machines and the abstraction available to a program of That machine; In other words, it is intended to provide a common level of understanding between hardware and software engineers. Read More…

Branch Tail

In Computer Architecture , While Branch predictions Tail branch  [1]  takes place. When Branch Predictor predicts the branch is taken or not.

Branch tail consists 2 values ​​only.  Taken  or  Not Taken  .

Branch queue helps other algorithms to increase parallelism and optimization. It is not software implemented or hardware one, it falls under hardware software co-design. Read More…

Berkeley IRAM project

A 1996–2004 research project in the Computer Science Division of the University of California, Berkeley, the  Berkeley IRAM project  explored computer architecture enabled by the wide bandwidth between memory and processor made possible when both are designed on the same integrated circuit (chip). [1]  Since it was envisioned that such a chip would consist primarily of random-access memory (RAM), with a smaller part needed for the central processing unit (CPU), the research team used the term “Intelligent RAM” (or IRAM) to describe a chip with this architecture. [2] [3]  Like the J–Machine project at MIT, the primary objective of the research was to avoid the Von Neumann bottleneck which occurs when the connection between memory and CPU is a relatively narrow memory bus between separate integrated circuits. Read More…

Autonomous decentralized system

An  autonomous decentralized system  (or  ADS  ) is a decentralized system composed of modules that are designed to operate independently of each other. This design paradigm enables the system to continue to function in the event of component failures. It also allows for maintenance and repair to be carried out while the system remains operational. Autonomous decentralized systems, including industrial production lines , railway signaling  [1]  and robotics.

The ADS has therefore recently been expanded to include service applications and embedded systems.  [2] Read More…

Approximate computing

Approximate computing  is a computation which returns a possibly inaccurate result rather than a guaranteed accurate result, for a situation where an approximate result is sufficient for a purpose. [1] [2]  One example of such situation is for a search engine where no exact answer may exist for a certain search query and hence, many answers may be acceptable. Similarly, occasional dropping of some frames in a video application can go undetected due to perceptual limitations of humans. Approximate computing is based on the observation that in many scenarios, although performing exact computation requires large amount of resources, allowing bounded approximationcan provide disproportionate gains in performance and energy, while still achieving acceptable result accuracy. [ clarification needed ]  For example, in k-means clustering algorithm, allowing only 5% loss in classification accuracy can provide 50 times energy saving compared to the fully accurate classification. [1] Read More…

Address space

In computing , an  address space  defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which corresponds to a network host , a peripheral device , a disk sector , a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

For software programs to save and retrieve stored data, each unit of data must have an address where it can be located or will be unable to find and manipulate the data. The number of address spaces will be limited by the computer architecture being used. Read More…

Abstraction layer

In computing , an  abstraction layer  or  abstraction level  is a way of hiding the implementation of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence . Software models that use layers of the OSI model for network protocols , OpenGL and other graphics libraries . Read More…

Computer architecture

In computer engineering,  computer architecture  is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. [1]  In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation. [2] Read More…

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