Automotive navigation system

An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile. It typically uses a satellite navigation device to get its position data which is then correlated to a position on a road. Where can we calculate it? On the fly traffic information can be used to adjust the route.

Dead reckoning using distance data from sensors attached to the drivetrain , a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used For greater reliability, as GPS signal loss and / or multipath can Occur due to urban canyons or tunnels .

Mathematically, automotive navigation is based on the shortest path problem , within graph theory , which examines how to identify the path that best meets certain criteria (shortest, cheapest, fastest, etc.) between two points in a large network.

History

Automotive navigation systems represent a convergence of a number of technologies that have been available for many years, but were too costly or inaccessible. Limitations such as batteries, display, and processing power had to be overcome before the product became commercially viable. [1]

  • 1961: Hidetsugu Yagi was designed wireless-based navigation system. This design was still primitive and intended for military-use.
  • 1966: General Motors Research (GMR) was working on a non-satellite-based navigation and assistance system called DAIR (Driver Aid, Information & Routing). After initial tests GM found that it was not a scalable or practical way to provide navigation assistance. Decades later, however, the concept would be reborn as OnStar (founded 1996). [2]
  • 1973: Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and Fuji Heavy Industries sponsored CATC (Comprehensive Automobile Traffic Control), a Japanese research project on automotive navigation systems. [3]
  • 1979: MITI established JSK (Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving) in Japan. [3]
  • 1980: Electronic Auto Compass with new Toyota Crown mechanism .
  • 1981: The first research of CATC leads to the first generation of automotive navigation systems from Japanese companies Honda , Nissan and Toyota . They used dead reckoning technology. [3]
  • 1981: Honda’s Electro Gyro-Cator was the first commercially available navigation system. It used to be inertial navigation systems, which tracked the distance traveled, the start point, and direction headed. [4] It was also the first with a map display. [3]
  • 1981: Navigation computer on the Toyota Celica (NAVICOM). [5]
  • 1983: Etak was founded. It made an early system that used a map-matching to improve on dead reckoning instrumentation. Digital map information was stored on standard cassette tapes. [6]
  • 1987: Toyota introduced the World’s first CD-ROM -based navigation system on the Toyota Crown. [7]
  • 1990: Mazda Eunos Cosmo became the first with built-in GPS- navigation system [8]
  • 1991: Toyota introduced GPS navigation on the Toyota Soarer .
  • 1991: Mitsubishi introduced GPS navigation on the Mitsubishi Debonair (MMCS: Mitsubishi Multi Communication System). [9]
  • 1992: Voice assisted GPS navigation system on the Toyota Celsior .
  • 1993: The Austrian channel ORF airs a presentation of the software company bitMAP and its head Werner Liebig’s invention, an electronic city map including street names and house numbers, using a satellite-based navigation system. BitMAP is waiting for Comdex in Las Vegas the same year, but does not manage to market itself properly.
  • 1994: BMW 7 series E38 first European model featuring GPS navigation. The navigation system was developed in cooperation with Philips (Philips CARIN). [10]
  • 1995: Oldsmobile introduced the first GPS navigation system in United States production car, called GuideStar. [11]
  • 1995: Device called “Mobile Assistant” or short, MASS, produced by Munich-based company ComRoad AG, won the title “Best Product in Mobile Computing” on CeBit by Byte magazine. It offered turn-by-turn navigation via wireless internet connection, with both GPS and speed sensor in the car.
  • 1997: Navigation system using Differential GPS developed as a factory-installed option on the Toyota Prius [12]
  • 1998: First DVD -based navigation system introduced on the Toyota Progres .
  • 2000: The United States made more accurate GPS signal available for civilian use. [13]
  • 2003: Toyota introduced the first Hard disk drive -based navigation system and the industry’s first DVD-based navigation system with built-in Electronic throttle control
  • 2007: Toyota introduced Map on Demand, a technology for distributing map updates to navigation systems, developed as the first of its kind in the world
  • 2008: World’s first navigation system-linked brake function and Navigation system linked to Adaptive Variable Suspension System (NAVI / AI-AVS) on Toyota Crown

Technology

The road database is a vector map . Street names or numbers and house numbers, as well as points of interest ( waypoints ), are encoded as geographic coordinates . This enables users to find a suitable destination. (See map database management .)

Map database formats are almost uniformly proprietary, with no industry standards for satellite navigation maps, but are not limited to SDAL and Navigation Data Standard (NDS). Map data vendors Such As Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ create the base map in a GDF ( Geographic Data Files ) format goal Each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized, usually proprietary Manner. GDF is not a standard CD for car navigation systems. GDF is used on the CD-ROM in the internal format of the navigation system. CDF (CARiN Database Format) is a proprietary navigation map format created by Philips .

ODF is a proprietary map formats developed by NAVTEQ , qui Was released royalty free in the Hope that It Would Become an industry standard for digital navigation maps, Has-been not very Widely adopté by the industry. Vendors who used this format include:

  • Microsoft
  • Magellan
  • Pioneer
  • Panasonic
  • Clarion
  • InfoGation

Navigation Data Standard (NDS)

The Navigation Data Standard (NDS) initiative, which is an industry grouping of manufacturers, navigation system suppliers and map data providers whose objective is the standardization of the data format used in navigation systems. The NDS effort began in 2004 and became a registered association in 2009. [14] Standardization would improve interoperability, specifically by allowing the same navigation maps to be used in navigation systems from 20 manufacturers. [15] Companies involved include BMW , Volkswagen , Daimler , Renault , ADIT, Aisin AW , Alpine Electronics ,Navigon , Navis-AMS, Bosch , DENSO , Mitsubishi , Harman International Industries , Panasonic , Preh Car Connect , TechniSat , PTV, Continental AG , Clarion , Navteq , Navinfo , TomTom and Zenrin .

Media

The road database can be stored in solid state read-only memory (ROM) , optical media ( CD or DVD ), solid state flash memory , magnetic media ( hard disk ), or a combination. A common scheme is in a database that ispermanently stored in the database . A ROM is always programmed at the factory; the other media may be preprogrammed, downloaded from a CD or DVD via a computer or wireless connection ( bluetooth , Wi-Fi), or directly used a card reader .

Some navigation device manufacturers provide free map updates for their customers. These updates are often obtained from the vendor’s website, which is accessed by connecting the navigation device to a PC.

Real-time data

Main article: Integration of traffic data with navigation systems

Some systems can receive and display information on traffic using TMC , RDS , or by GPRS / 3G data transmission via mobile phones.

Integration and other functions

  • The color LCD screens can be used to display television broadcasts or DVD movies .
  • A few systems integrate (or communicate) with mobile phones for hands-free talking and SMS messaging (ie, using Bluetooth or Wi-Fi ).
  • Automotive navigation systems can include information for meetings , which can be combined with a public transport information system.

Original factory equipment

Many vehicles manufacturers offer a GPS navigation device as an option in their vehicles. Customers whose vehicles did not ship with GPS can therefore purchase and retrofit the original factory-supplied GPS unit. In some cases this can be a straightforward “plug-and-play” installation if the required wiring harness is already present in the vehicle. However, with some manufacturers, new wiring is required, making the installation more complex.

The primary benefit of this approach is an integrated and factory-standard installation. Many original systems also contain a gyrocompass and / or an accelerometer and may accept input from the vehicle ‘s speed and feedback gear commitment signal output, thus allowing them to navigate via dead reckoning when a GPS signal is unavailable. [16] However, the costs can be higher than other options.

SMS

Establishing points of interest in real-time and transmitting via GSM cellular telephone networks using the Short Message Service ( SMS ) is referred to as Gps2sms. Some vehicles and vessels are equipped with hardware that is capable to automatically send an SMS message when a particular event happens, such as theft, anchor drift or breakdown. The receiving party (eg, a tow truck ) can store the waypoint in a computer system, a map indicating the location, or see it in an automotive navigation system.

See also

  • Augmented reality
  • Automatic vehicle rental
  • Autonomous because
  • GPS eXchange Format
  • GPS navigation device
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Map database management
  • Mapscape BV
  • Mobile data terminal
  • Navigation Data Standard (NDS)
  • NavPix
  • Navteq
  • Personal navigation assistant (PNA)
  • TomTom
  • Traffic Message Channel (TMC)
  • Hybrid Navigation

References

GRACENOTE

  1. Jump up^ Cartographies of Travel and Navigation, James A. Akerman,p.277
  2. Jump up^ http://www.gpspower.net/gps-news/330038-evolution-car-navigation-technology-pictures.html
  3. ^ Jump up to:d Cartographies of Travel and Navigation , James A. Akerman, p.279
  4. Jump up^ http://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/13/world/gallery/japanese-inventions-changed-how-we-live/index.html
  5. Jump up^ http://7car.tw/articles/read/12512
  6. Jump up^ “Positioning and Navigation
  7. Jump up^ “Toyota Crown Royal 1987” . favcars.com/ . Retrieved 2015-01-19 .
  8. Jump up^ “1993 Eunos / Mazda Cosmo Classic Uncosmopolitan Drive: Meet the Rarest Mazda in America” . Motor Trend . TEN: The Enthusiast Network . Retrieved 2015-01-18 .
  9. Jump up^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RXd32z5vN18
  10. Jump up^ “20 JAHRE NAVIGATION Was there a little ihnen geworden?” . auto-motor-und-sport.de/ . Retrieved 4 May 2017 .
  11. Jump up^ “How In-Dash Navigation Worked In 1992 – Olds Was First” . jesda.com/ . Retrieved 2015-01-19 .
  12. Jump up^ “Cheap Android GPS Car Radio, Reversing Radar Camera – Player Top”. www.player-top.fr . Retrieved 2016-07-18 .
  13. Jump up^ “The United States’ Decision to Stop Global Degrading Positioning System Accuracy” . Clinton4.nara.gov. 2000-05-01 . Retrieved 2009-10-18 .
  14. Jump up^ “Short History of NDS” (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-11-05 .
  15. Jump up^ “NDS Partners, NDS Association” . NDS Association . Archived fromthe original on 2015-02-13 . Retrieved 2015-02-13 . External link in( help )|publisher=
  16. Jump up^ In-Car Positioning and Navigation Technologies-A Survey, I. Skog, and P. Händel,[1]

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