Retrocomputing

Retrocomputing is the use of older computer hardware and software in modern times. Retrocomputing is usually classed as a hobby and recreation rather than a practical application of technology; enthusiasts often collect rare and valuable hardware and software for sentimental reasons. However, some do make use of it. [1] Retrocomputing often starts when a computer user realizes expensive IBM systems like mainframes , Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) superminis , or Silicon Graphics (SGI), even NeXT ComputerSystem workstationshave become affordable on the computer market, usually in a relatively short time after the computers’ era of use. Read More…

Human computer

The term ” computer “, [1] meant “one who computes”: a person performing mathematical calculations , before electronic computing became commercially available. “The human computer is supposed to be governed by the rules” [2] Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations; the work was divided so that it could be done in parallel.

Since the end of the 20th century, the term “human computer” has also been applied to individuals with prodigious powers of mental arithmetic , also known as mental calculators . Read More…

Ferranti MRT

The Ferranti Market Research Terminal (MRT) was, arguably, the world’s first application-specific handheld computer. [1] [2] It was designed SPECIFICALLY for the market research sector as a means clustering to augment the regular clipboard schemes That, at the time, Were common-place in social and market research . [3] The Ferranti Market Research Terminal (MRT) est of historical significance to the computing industry since it marked the last original design from computer Ferranti , long Established business (started 1882) That HAD risen to fame through a collaborative Manchester Universityto produce the ” Mark 1 “, the world’s first commercial computer and later with Cambridge University producing the ” Atlas ” and ” Titan ” computers which, at their peak, held around 25% of the computing market. Read More…

Delete character

In computing, the delete character (sometimes also called rubout ) is the last character in the ASCII directory, with the code 127 ( decimal ). [1] Not a graphic character but a control character , it is denoted as ^?in caret notationand has a graphic representation of Unicode (as all ASCII control characters graphic representations).

Most modern keyboards do not have a key to input the Delete character. In Unix-like systems the key or combination of and can be used to express the Delete character. Products like Notepad can also generate this character with the same key presses.← BackspaceControl← Backspace Read More…

Computer: A History of the Information Machine

Computer: A History of the Information Machine is a history of computing written by Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray first published in 1996. It follows the history of “information machine” from Charles Babbage ‘s difference engine through Herman Hollerith ‘s tabulating machine to the invention of the modern electronic digital computer. A revised 2nd edition published in 2004 included new material on the Internet and World Wide Web, Nathan Ensmenger and Jeffrey Yost. The 3rd edition extends the story to include recent phenomena such as social networking and revisiting the discussion of early history to reflect new insights from the literature. Read More…

Computer Press Association

Founded in 1983, the Computer Press Association (CPA) was established to promote excellence in the field of computer journalism. The association was composed of working editors, writers, producers, and freelancers who covered issues related to computers and technology. The CPA was the annual Computer Press Awards, which was the preeminent editorial awards of the computer and technology media. The CPA Awards honored outstanding examples in print, broadcast and electronic media. Awards were given for print publications, such as PC Magazine ; online news media, such as Newsbytes Network News (both were multiple winners); individual columns and features by well-known journalists Such As Steven Levy (author of “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution “); broadcast awards such as “Best Radio Program”; Best Product Specific Book. CPA President Jeff Yablon (1994-1996), most notably Bruno Blenheim . The Computer Press Association disbanded in 2000. Read More…

Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology , particularly the history of digital computing, programming / software, and computer networking since 1935. The Institute is named for Charles Babbage , the nineteenth-century English inventor of the programmable computer. [1] The Institute is located in Elmer L. Andersen Library at the University of Minnesota Libraries in Minneapolis , Minnesota . Read More…

C.mmp

The C.mmp was an early multiprocessor MIMD developed at Carnegie Mellon University by William Wulf (1971). The notation C.mmp came from the PMS notation of Bell and Newell, where a CPU was designated as C and a variant was noted by the dot notation; mmp stood for Multi-Mini-Processor Read More…

History of computer hardware in Bulgaria

This article describes the history of computer hardware in Bulgaria . At its peak, Bulgaria supplied 40% of the computers in COMECON [1] . The electronics industry employed 300,000 workers, and it generated 8 billion rubles a year. Since the democratic changes in 1989 and the subsequent chaotic political and economic conditions, the Bulgarian computer industry has almost completely disintegrated. Read More…

Boston CitiNet

Started in 1983, Boston CitiNet was developed by Applied Videotex Systems, Inc. of Belmont, Massachusetts . The service allowed modem-equipped personal computer users to dial-in and access a range of information and messaging services including chat, forums, email and a variety of content. There Were Several other companies Offering paid / subscription services have the time like The Source , CompuServe and Boston-based Delphi . Boston Citinet has been unique and has been supported by advertising. $ 9.95 – an early example of the popular freemium business model. Read More…

As We May Think

” As We May Think ” is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society . It was first published in The Atlantic in July 1945 and republished in an abridged version in September 1945-before and after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki . Bush express His concern for the management of scientific efforts Toward destruction Rather than understanding, and explicates a desire for a sort of collective memory Machine With His concept of the memexthat would make knowledge more accessible, believing that it would help fix these problems. Through this machine, Bush hoped to transform an information explosion into a knowledge explosion. [1] Read More…

Aperture card

An aperture card is a type of punched card with a cut-out window in which a chip of microfilm is mounted. Such a card is used for archiving or for making multiple inexpensive copies of a document for ease of distribution. The card is typically punched with machine-readable metadata associated with the image microfilm, and printed in the card for visual identification. The microfilm chip is most commonly 35mm in height, and contains an optically reduced image, usually of some type of reference, such as an engineering drawing, that is the focus of the archiving process. Aperture cards have several advantages and disadvantages when compared to digital systems. Machinery exists to automatically store, retrieve, spell, duplicate, create, and digitize cards with a high level of automation. While many aperture cards still play an important role in archiving, their role is being replaced by digital systems. Read More…

Actor model middle history

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973 ( Hewitt et al., 1973 ), is a mathematical model of concurrent computation . This article reports on the history of the Actor model in which major themes were initial implementations, initial applications, and development of the first proof theory and denotational model. It is the follow on to item Actor model early history qui carry on the early history of the Actor model qui Concerned the development of the basic concepts. The article Actor model later in this article. Read More…

Actor model later history

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973 ( Hewitt et al., 1973 ), is a mathematical model of concurrent computation . This article reports on the latest history of the Actor model in which major themes have been investigated in the study of the model, study of issues of composition, development of architectures, and application to Open systems. It is the follow on article to Actor model middle history which reports on the initial implementations, initial applications, and development of the first proof theory and denotational model. Read More…

History of the Actor model

In computer science , the Actor model , first published in 1973, is a mathematical model of concurrent computation .

Event orderings versus global state

A fundamental challenge in defining the Actor model is that it did not provide for global states so that it was computational step in the global state of the world. Read More…

XTS-400

The XTS-400 is a multi-level secure computer operating system . It is multi-user and multitasking that uses multilevel scheduling in processing data and information. It works in networked environments and supports Gigabit Ethernet and Both IPv4 and IPv6 .

The XTS-400 is a combination of Intel x86 hardware and the Secure Operating System Operating System ( STOP ) . XTS-400 was developed by BAE Systems , and originally released as version 6.0 in December 2003. Read More…

Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) is an American nonprofit organization that aims to “produce, establish, maintain and endorse the standardized set of performance benchmarks for computers. [1]

SPEC was founded in 1988. [2] [3] SPEC benchmarks are widely used to evaluate the performance of computer systems; the test results are published on the SPEC website. Read More…

SPECpower

SPECpower_ssj2008 is the first industry-standard benchmark that evaluates the power and performance characteristics of volume server class computers. It is available from the Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC). SPECpower_ssj2008 is SPEC’s first attempt at defining server power measurement standards. [1] It was introduced in December, 2007. [2] Read More…

SDET

SDET is a benchmark used in the systems software research community for measuring the throughput of a multi-user computer operating system.

Its name stands for SPEC Software Development Environment Throughput (SDET), and is packaged along with Kenbus in the SPEC SDM91 benchmark. Read More…

Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers

Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC) is a benchmark suite of multi-threaded emerging workloads that is used to evaluate and develop next-generation chip-multiprocessors . It was collaboratively created by Intel and Princeton University to drive research efforts on future computer systems. [1] [2] Since its inception the benchmark continues to be improved by a wide range of research institutions. [3] PARSEC is available and is used for both academic and non-academic research. [4] [5] [6] Read More…

Evaluation Insurance Level

The Evaluation Insurance Level (EAL1 through EAL7) is an international standard in the field of credit and security. to achieve Common Criteria certification. The intent of the higher levels is to provide greater confidence that the system’s main security features are reliably implemented. The EAL level does not measure the security of the system itself, it has been tested. Read More…

BAPCo consortium

BAPCo , Business Applications Performance Corporation, is a non-profit consortium (founded in 1991) with a charter to develop and distribute a set of performance benchmarks for personal computers based on popular software applications and operating systems.

BAPCo’s current membership includes Acer , ARCIntuition, ChinaByte, CNET , Compal Electronics , Dell , Hewlett-Packard , Hitachi , Intel , Future Center LC, Lenovo , Microsoft , Western Digital , Wistron , Samsung , Sony , Toshiba , Zol. Read More…

Utility computing

Utility computing , or the Computer Utility , is a service provisioning model in which a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to the customer as needed, and charges them for specific usage rather than a flat rate. Like other types of on-demand computing (such as grid computing), the utility model seeks to maximize the efficient use of resources and / or minimize associated costs. Utility is the packaging of system resources , such as computing, storage and services, as a metered service. This model has the advantage of a low cost instead, resources are essentially rented. Read More…

Ultra-large-scale systems

Ultra-large-scale system (ULSS) is a computer science , software engineering, and systems engineering software. The scale of these systems gives rise to many problems: they will be developed and used by many stakeholders across multiple organizations, often with conflicting purposes and needs; they will be constructed from heterogeneous parts with complex dependencies and emergent properties; they will be continuously evolving; and software, hardware and human failures will be the norm, not the exception. The term ‘ultra-large-scale system’ was introduced by Northrop and others[1] to describe challenges facing the United States Department of Defense . The term has subsequently been used to discuss challenges in many areas, including the computerization of financial markets. [2] The term ‘ultra-wide-scale system’ (ULSS) is sometimes used interchangeably with the term ‘large-scale complex IT system’ (LSCITS). These two terms were described in the US and the latter in the UK. Read More…

Time-sharing

In computing , time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time. [1]

Its introduction in the 1960s and emergence as the model of computing in the 1970s represented a major shift in the history of computing. Read More…

TeamQuest Corporation

TeamQuest Corporation , is a computer software company specializing in Systems Management , Performance Management and Capacity Planning Software for Computer Servers . TeamQuest is headquartered in Clear Lake, Iowa , United States , with branch offices located in Gothenburg, Sweden , Oxford , United Kingdom , Frankfurt, Germany , and Hong Kong . Read More…

Systems management

Systems Management Refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed systems Including (and Commonly in practice) computer systems . citation needed ] Systems management is being influenced by network management initiatives in telecommunications . The application performance management (APM) technologies are now a subset of Systems Management. Maximum productivity can be achieved more efficiently through event correlation, system automation and predictive analysis, which is now all part of APM. [1] Read More…

Systems design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture , modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements . Systems design could be seen in the application of systems theory to product development . There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis , systems architecture and systems engineering . [1] [2] Read More…

System in package

system in package ( SiP ) or system-in-a-package is a number of integrated circuits enclosed in a single module ( package ). The SiP performs all the functions of an electronic system , and is typically used within a mobile phone , digital music player , etc. [1] Dies containing integrated circuits can be stacked vertically on a substrate . They are internally connected by thin wires that are bound to the package. Alternatively, with a flip chip technology, solder bumps are used to join stacked chips together. Read More…

System console

The system console , computer console , root console , operator ‘s console , or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, PARTICULARLY Those from the BIOS or boot loader , the kernel , from the init system and from the system logger . It is a physical device of a keyboard and a screen, and is traditionally a terminal text , but may also be a graphical terminal . System consoles are generalized to computer terminals, which are abstracted by virtual consoles and terminal emulators . Today communication with system consoles is done abstractly, via the standard streams ( stdin , stdout , and stderr ), but there may be system-specific interfaces, for example those used by the system kernel. Read More…

Software metering

Software metering refers to several areas:

    • Tracking and maintaining software licenses . One needs to make sure that the license is in use, and at the same time, that there are enough licenses for everyone using it. This can include monitoring of concurrent use of software for real-time enforcement of license limits. Such license monitoring usually includes when a license is needed or when upgrades or even rebates are possible. [1]

Read More…

System administrator

system administrator , or sysadmin , is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems ; especially multi-user computers, such as servers . The system administrator seeks to ensure that the uptime , performance , resources , and security of the computer or the budget of the users , while exceeding the budgetwhen doing so. Read More…

Sysload Software

Introduction

Sysload Software , was a computer software company specializing in systems measurement , performance and capacity management solutions for servers and data centers , based in Créteil , France . It was acquired in September 2009 by ORSYP , a computer software company specialist in workload scheduling and IT Operations Management, based in La Défense , France . Read More…

Problem solving environment

problem solving environment (PSE) is a completed, integrated and specialized computer software for solving a class of problems, involving automated problem-solving methods with human-oriented tools for guiding the problem. A PSE may also assist users in formulating problem resolution. A PSE may also assist users in formulating problems, selecting algorithms, simulating numerical value and viewing and analyzing results. Read More…

Physical computing

Physical computing means building interactive physical systems by the use of software and hardware that can sense and respond to the analog world. Clarification needed ] While this definition is broad enough to Encompass systems Such As smart automotive traffic control systems or factory automation processes, it is not Commonly used to describe ’em. In a broader sense, physical computing is a creative framework for understanding human beings’ relationship to the digital world. In the use, the term most often describes handmade art, design or DIY hobby projects that usesensors and microcontrollers to translate analog input to a software system , and / or control electro-mechanical devices such as motors , servos , lighting or other hardware. Read More…

Operability

Operability is the ability to keep an equipment, a system or a whole industrial installation in a safe and reliable functioning, according to pre-defined operational requirements.

In a computing systems environment with multiple systems, the capacity of products, systems and business processes to work with Read More…

Open system (computing)

Open systems are computer systems that provide some combination of interoperability , portability , and open software standards . (It can also be referred to as “unrestricted access”).

The term was popularized in the early 1980s, mainly to describe systems based on Unix , especially in contrast to the more entrenched mainframes and minicomputers in that time. Unlike older legacy systems , the newer generation of Unix systems featured standardized programming interfaces and peripheral interconnects; third party development of hardware and software Was Encouraged, a significant departure from the norm of the time, companies saw qui Such As Amdahl and Hitachi going to court for the right to sell systems and peripherals That Were consistent with IBM’s mainframes. Read More…

Multiseat configuration

multiseat , multi-station or multiterminal configuration is a single computer which supports multiple independent local users at the same time.

A “seat” consists of all hardware devices that are assigned to a specific workplace at which one user has access to the computer. It Consists of au moins un graphics device (graphics card or just an output (eg HDMI / VGA / DisplayPort port) and the attached monitor / projector ) for the output and a keyboard and a mouse for the input. It can also include video cameras, sound cards and more. Read More…

Mobile computing

Mobile computing is human-computer interaction by qui a computer is expected to be transported During normal use, qui Allows for transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols , data formats and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. Read More…

Log analysis

In computer log management and intelligence , log analysis (gold system and network log analysis ) is an art and science seeking to make sense out of computer-generated records (also called Expired log or audit trail records). The process of creating such records is called data logging . Read More…

Integration appliance

An integration appliance is a computer system specifically designed to lower the cost of integrating computer systems. Most integration appliances send or receive electronic messages from other computers that are exchanging electronic documents. Most Integration Appliances supporting XML messaging standards Such As SOAP and Web services are frequently Referred to as XML appliances and perform functions That can be grouped together as XML-Enabled Networking . Read More…

Integrated Geo Systems

Integrated Geo Systems (IGS) is a computational architecture system for managing geoscientific data through systems and data integration .

Geoscience often involves large volumes of various data which have been processed by computer and graphics intensive applications . The processes involved in processing these large datasets are often so complex that no single software applications can perform all the required tasks. Specialized applications have emerged for specific tasks. To get the required results, it is necessary that all applications software involved in various stages of data processing, analysis and interpretation. Read More…

Fault tolerance

Fault tolerance is the property that allows a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of some or some of its components. If its operating quality decreases at all, the decrease is proportional to the severity of the failure, as compared to a naively designed system in which a small failure can cause total breakdown. Fault tolerance is highly sought after in high-availability or life-critical systems . The ability to maintain functionality when serving as a breakthrough . [1] Read More…

Electronic logbook

An electronic logbook is a computer based software for recording (logging) states, events or simply conditions used for complex machines like aircraft, nuclear plants, particle accelerators, various areas on board ships replacing paper based logbooks, etc.

This version of a logbook was derived from the old-fashioned paper based logbooks which have been used in the maritime sector (see also logbook ). Today is a wide spectrum of different implementations of these electronic journals is available, even if most versions are based on the classical client-server approach. Here the electronic logbook serves a client which is in most cases a simple web browser. Read More…

DISCover

Digital Interactive Systems Corporation (or DISCover ) is a company specializing in gaming technology for PCs. They are the creators of the DISCover technology qui allow PC games to be played like a game console video . [1]The technology, which features the “Drop and Play” engine, auto-plays CDs or DVDs and automata scripts for installing and updating games. [2] Consoles with the engine connected to the Internet for game updates. [3] This technology debuted at the 2003 Electronic Entertainment Expo . [4] Read More…

Cyber-physical system

cyber-physical (also styled cyberphysical ) system ( CPS ) is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the Internet and its users. In cyber-physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, each operating on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibiting multiple and distinct behavioral modalities, and interacting with each other in a myriad of ways that change with context . [1] Examples of CPS include smart grid , autonomous automotive systems, medical monitoring ,process control systems , robotic systems, and automatic pilot avionics. [2] Read More…

Cyber ​​manufacturing

Cybermanufacturing is a concept derived from cyber-physical systems (CPS). Basically, it refers to a modern manufacturing system that offers an information-transparent environment to facilitate asset management, provide reconfigurability, and maintain productivity. Compared with conventional knowledge-based management systems, cyber manufacturing provides an evidence-based environment to keep equipment users up to date. Driving technologies include the design of cyber-physical systems, a combination of engineering and computer science, and information technologies. Among them, mobile applications for manufacturing is an area of ​​specific interest to industries and academia. [1] Read More…

Continuous availability

Continuous Availability is an approach to computer system and application design that protects users against downtime, whatever the cause and ensures that users remain connected to their documents, data files and business applications. Continuous availability describes the information technology methods to ensure business continuity . [1] [ citation needed ] Read More…

Computer-aided maintenance

Computer-aided Maintenance (not to be confused with CAM qui usually stands for Computer Aided Manufacturing ) Refers to systems please use That software to organizes planning, scheduling and carrier of service and repair. A common application of such systems is the maintenance of computers, or hardware or software, themselves. It can also be applied to the maintenance of such complex systems that require periodic maintenance. Read More…

Computer office

computer desk is a service bureau providing computer services.

Computer bureaus developed during the early 1960s, following the development of time-sharing operating systems. These allowed the services of a single broad and expensive mainframe computer to be divided up and sold as a fungible commodity. And the development of telecommunications and the first modems encouraged by the growth of the computer office. Read More…

The COED Project

The COED Project , or the Co mmunications and EDiting Project , was an innovative software project created by the NOAA Computer Division , US Department of Commerce in Boulder, Colorado in the 1970s. This project was designed, implemented and implemented by the in-house computing staff rather than any official organization. Read More…

Automotive navigation system

An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile. It typically uses a satellite navigation device to get its position data which is then correlated to a position on a road. Where can we calculate it? On the fly traffic information can be used to adjust the route.

Dead reckoning using distance data from sensors attached to the drivetrain , a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used For greater reliability, as GPS signal loss and / or multipath can Occur due to urban canyons or tunnels . Read More…

Alert correlation

Alert correlation is a type of long analysis . It focuses on the process of clustering alerts (events), generated by NIDS and HIDS computer systems, to form higher-level pieces of information.

Example of simple alert correlation is grouping invalid login attempts to report single incident like “10000 invalid login attempts on host X”. Read More…

3D Content Retrieval

3D Content Retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving three dimensional digital contents (eg: Computer-aided design, molecular biology, and cultural heritage 3D scenes, etc.) from a large database of digital images. The most original way of doing 3D content retrieval uses methods to add text to 3D content files. Because of the inefficiency of manually annotating 3D files, researchers have investigated ways to automate the annotation process and provide a unified standard to create text descriptions for 3D content. Moreover, the increase in 3D information. Thus, shape matching methods for 3D content retrieval have become popular. Shape matching is based on techniques that compare and contrast similarities between 3D models. Read More…

Computer

computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs , enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices . This includes single special purpose devices like microwave ovensand remote controls , factory Devices Such As industrial robots and computer assisted design , goal aussi in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices Such As smartphones . The Internet is running on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Read More…

Flat panel display

Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technology used to enable people to see happy (still pictures , moving pictures , text , or other visual material) in a ranks of entertainment , consumer electronics , personal computer , and mobile devices , And Many kinds of medical , transportation and industrial equipment . They are far and away from traditional cathode ray tube (CRT) television sets and video displays and are usually less than 10 centimeters (3.9 in) thick. Flat-panel displays can be divided into twodisplay device categories: volatile and static. Volatile displays require that pixels be periodically electronically refreshed to retain their state (eg, liquid-crystal displays (LCD)). A volatile display only shows an image when it has battery or AC power hands . Static flat-panel displays rely on materials whose color states are bistable (eg, e-book reader tablets from Sony ), and as such, flat-panel displays retain the text or images on the screen when the power is off. As of 2016, flat-panel displays have almost completely replaced old CRT displays. In many 2010-era applications, specifically small portable devices such aslaptops , mobile phones , smartphones , digital cameras , camcorders , point-and-shoot cameras , and pocket video cameras , any display disadvantages of flat-panels (as compared with CRTs) are made up for by portability advantages (thinness and lightweightness). Read More…

Game development kit

Game development kits ( GDK ) are specialized hardware used to create commercial videogames . They can be partnered with game development tools, special game engine licenses, and other middleware to aid video game development . Typically GDKs are not available to the public, and require game developers to enter an agreement, partnership, or program with the hardware manufacturer to gain access to the hardware. As game consolegenerations pass, development kits often get sold through eBay like websites without repercussions. This is often because the console manufacturers discontinue certain development programs as time passes. Read More…

X2 transceiver

The X2 transceiver is a 10 gigabit per second modular fiber optic interface designed for use in routers, [1] switches and optical transport platforms. It is an early generation 10 gigabit interface related to XENPAK and XPAK formats. [2]X2 can be used with 10 gigabit ethernet or OC-192 / STM-64 speed SDH / SONET equipment.

X2 modules are smaller and consume more power than first generation XFP modules, but larger and more energy efficient than the standard XFP transceiver and standard SFP +. Read More…

Vinyl cutter

vinyl cutter is a type of computer- controlled machine . Small vinyl cutters look like computer printers . The computer controls the movement of a sharp blade like a knife. This blade is used to cut out shapes and letters from thin sheets of self-adhesive plastic ( vinyl ).

A symbol / label can be produced using a Vinyl Cutter such as a ‘Sticker Machine’ or a ‘Craftrobo’. These machines are controlled by a computer and operate similar to a printer. Essentially they cut out shapes in vinyl adhesive. The vinyl can then be stuck on almost any surface. [1] Read More…

Power cycling

Power cycling is the act of turning a piece of equipment, usually a computer , off and then on again. Reasons for power cycling Having an electronic device include reinitialize ict set of configuration parameters or recover from an unresponsive state of ict mission critical functionality, Such As in a crash or hang situations. Power cycling can also be used to reset network activity inside a modem. It can also be among the first steps for troubleshooting an issue. Read More…

Mini STX

Mini-STX (aka Mini S ocket T echnology E X tender, Intel 5×5) is a motherboard form factor supports That upgradable processors. Size-wise, it’s in between Intel’s NUC (next unit of computing) motherboards and Mini-ITX boards that are popular in small form-factor builds. Read More…

Librem

Librem is a line of computers Manufactured by Purism, SPC featuring free (free) hardware and software. The laptop is designed to protect privacy and freedom by providing no-free (proprietary) software in the operating system or kernel, [1] [2] [3] [4] avoiding the Intel Active Management Technology , [5] and gradually freeing and securing firmware . [6] [7] Librem feature laptop hardware kill switches [8] [9] [10] for the microphone, webcam, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi , and can be purchased this air gapped. Read More…

Hardware-based encryption

Hardware-based encryption is the use of computer hardware to assist software, or replace software, in the process of data encryption . Typically, this is implemented as part of the processor’s set statement. For example, the AES encryption algorithm (a modern cipher ) can be implemented using the AES instruction set on the ubiquitous x86 architecture . [1]Such instructions also exist on the ARM architecture . [2] However, more unusual systems exist where the cryptography module is separate from the central processor, instead being implemented as acoprocessor , in particular a secure cryptoprocessor , of which an example is the IBM 4758 , or its successor, the IBM 4764 . [3] Hardware implementations can be faster than traditional software implementations, and more can be protected against tampering. [4] However, hardware implementations can not be solved with software update , and any security vulnerability (such as Spectrum ) can not be solved with a software update. [5] Read More…

Trojan Hardware

Trojan Hardware ( HT ) is a malicious modification of the circuitry of an integrated circuit . A hardware Trojan is completely characterized by its physical representation and its behavior. The payload of an HT is the entire activity that the Trojan executes when it is triggered. In general, malicious Trojans try to bypass the security of a system. HTs also could disable, derange or destroy the entire chip or components of it. Read More…

Hardware security

Hardware security as a discipline originated out of cryptographic engineering and involves hardware design , access control , secure multi-party computation , secure key storage, assurance code authenticity, measures to ensure that the supply chain is secure. [1] [2] [3] [4]

A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing . These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server . Read More…

Hardware reset

hardware reset or hard reset of a computer system is a hardware operation that re-initializes the hardware components of the system, thus ending all current software operations in the system. This is Typically, but not always, Followed by booting of the system into firmware That re-initializes the rest of the system, and restarts the operating system .

Hardware resets are an essential portion of the power-on process , purpose May aussi be triggered without power cycling the system by Direct user response via a physical reset button , watchdog timers , or by software Intervention That, as icts last action Activates the hardware reset line. Read More…

Hardware compatibility list

hardware compatibility list ( HCL ) is a list of computer hardware (typically including many types of peripheral devices) that is compatible with a particular operating system or device management software. In today’s world, there is a vast amount of computer hardware in circulation, and many operating systems too. A hardware compatibility list is a database of hardware models and their compatibility with a certain operating system. Read More…

Hardware backdoor

Hardware backdoors are backdoors in hardware .

In most cases citation needed ] hardware backdoors involved code inside hardware – such may reside in the firmware of computer chips. [1] In other cases, the backdoors may be directly implemented Trojans in the integrated circuit . Read More…

GPU switching

GPU switching is a mechanism used on computers with multiple graphic controllers. This mechanism allows the user to maximize the performance of the battery or the battery life by switching between the graphic cards. It’s mostly used on gaming laptops which usually have an integrated graphic device and a discrete video card . Read More…

ASRock M8

The ASRock M8 is a Mini-ITX barebones computer kit that was created by ASRock in collaboration with BMW Designworks . [1] There are currently two variations of the M8. The first release (2013) is known to the M8 Series, while the updated (2015) version is known to the M8 Series (Z97). [2] Read More…

Computer hardware

Computer hardware are the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor , keyboard, computer data storage , graphic card , sound card and motherboard . [1] By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and ran by hardware.

Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction . A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system. Read More…

Von Neumann architecture

The von Neumann architecture , which is also known as the Neumann model and Princeton architecture , is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC . [1] This describes a design architecture for an electronic computer with parts of a processing unitcontaining an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers ; a control unit containing an instruction register andprogram counter ; a memory to store both data and instructions ; external mass storage ; and input and output mechanisms. [1] [2] The meaning HAS to be Evolved Any stored-program computer in qui year fetch statement and a data operation can not Occur at the time Sami Because They share a common bus . This is referred to as the Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. [3] Read More…

Xeon Phi

Xeon Phi [1] are a series of x86 manycore processors designed and made entirely by Intel . They are intended for use in supercomputers, servers, and high-end workstations. Its architecture makes use of standard programming languages ​​and APIs such as OpenMP . [2]

Since it was originally based on an earlier GPU design by Intel, it shares application areas with GPUs. citation needed ] The main difference between Xeon Phi and a GPGPU like Nvidia Tesla is that Xeon Phi, with an x86-compatible core, can, with less modification, than software that was originally targeted at a standard x86 CPU. quote needed ] Read More…

Zero address arithmetic

Zero address arithmetic is a feature of a few innovative computer architectures , where the assignment to a physical address is deferred. It Eliminates the link step of conventional compile and link architectures, and more Generally relocation .

All Burroughs large systems and medium systems had this property, as their modern day successors preserve the original physical architecture. Read More…

Xputer

The Xputer is a design for a reconfigurable computer , proposed by scientist Reiner Hartenstein. Hartenstein uses various terms to describe the various innovations in the design, including config-ware, flow-ware, morph-ware, and “anti-machine”. Read More…

Transport triggered architecture

In computer architecture , a transport triggered architecture ( TTA ) is a kind of CPU design in qui programs Directly control the internal transportation nozzles of a processor. Computation happens as a side effect of data transport: writing data into a triggering port of a functional unit triggers the functional unit to start a computation. This is similar to what happens in a systolic array . Due to its modular structure, TTA is an ideal processor template for the application-specific instruction-set processors ( ASIPwith customized datapath but without the inflexibility and design cost of fixed hardware accelerators. Read More…

Temporal multithreading

Temporal multithreading is one of the two main forms of multithreading that can be implemented on computer hardware processor, the other being simultaneous multithreading . The distinguishing différence entre the two forms is the maximum number of concurrent threads That can execute in Any Given pipeline internship in a Given cycle . In temporal multithreading the number is one, while in multithreading multithreading the number is greater than one. Some authors use the term super-threading synonymously. [1] Read More…

Tagged architecture

In computer science , a tagged architecture [1] [2] [3] is a particular type of computer architecture where each word of memory is made of a tagged union , being divided into a number of bits of data, and a tag section that describes the type of the data: how it is to be interpreted, and, if it is a reference, the type of the object that it points to. Read More…

Random-access memory

Random-access memory ( RAM / r æ m / ) is a form of computer data storage That stores data and computer code Currently being white used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks , CD-RWs , DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memoryThe time required to read and write data on the medium and the speed of motion. Read More…

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